中國華文教育網
淝水之戰 The Battle of Feishui
2009年09月03日 14:59

  淝水之戰

  西元4世紀下半期,前秦皇帝苻堅統一了北方黃河流域。西元383年5月,苻堅征集了80多萬人的軍隊開始進攻東晉。

  面對前秦的進攻,東晉上下決心同心協力抗敵。當時,晉軍將領是謝石、謝玄和劉牢之,總數只有8萬人。10月,前秦軍隊攻占壽陽(今安徽壽縣),苻堅派被俘的東晉將軍朱序到晉軍中去勸降。朱序到了晉營,趁機告訴謝石,前秦軍隊到達前線的只有25萬軍士,建議先發起進攻。

  11月,劉牢之帶精兵5,000人進攻,消滅了秦軍5萬人。謝石等隨後乘勝前進,在淝水與前秦軍隔水對陣。一天,謝玄以隔水不方便打仗為理由,請秦軍後退。苻堅想乘晉軍渡河時用騎兵猛衝,消滅晉軍,于是命令秦軍後退。可是,前秦士兵不明白後退的意思,以為秦軍已戰敗了。此時,朱序又乘機大喊:『秦軍敗了!秦軍敗了!』前秦軍隊頓時大亂。晉軍乘機渡過了淝水,秦兵拚命逃跑,苻堅被箭射傷,只帶了10多萬人逃回長安。

  這是歷史上有名的以少勝多的淝水之戰。淝水之戰後,前秦瓦解,北方又重新分裂。

  The Battle of Feishui

  In the latter half of the fourth century, Fu Jian, ruler of the Former Qin Dynasty, united the Yellow River Valley area. In the fifth lunar month of 383, Fu Jian led an army of over 800,000 men against Eastern Jin.

  Facing the attack of Fu Jian's army, the Eastern Jin Dynasty decided to make concerted efforts to fight against the enemy. At that time, leaders of the Jin army were Xie Shi, Xie Xuan and Liu Laozhi. They had an army of only 80,000 men. In the 10th lunar month Fu Jian's army captured Shouyang (today's Shouxian County, Anhui Province). Fu Jian sent Zhu Xu, a Jin general captured by the Former Qin army, to the Jin army, to induce them to capitulate. Seizing the chance of going to the Jin camp, Zhu Xu told Xie Shi that there were only 250,000 Former Qin soldiers in the front, and he suggested the Jin army launch an attack first.

  In the 11th month, Liu Laozhi attacked the Former Qin army with 5,000 crack soldiers and wiped out 50,000 Former Qin soldiers. Xie Shi and other generals advanced on the crest of the victory and confronted the Former Qin army with each army on one side of the Feishui River. One day, Xie Xuan proposed that it was not convenient for the two belligerent parties to fight on different sides of the river and asked the Former Qin army to draw back. Fu Jian had planned to attack the Jin army when they crossed the river, so he ordered his army to retreat. However, his soldiers did not know the real meaning of the retreat, and many of them thought that they had lost the battle. Just at that time, Zhu Xu shouted loudly, "Fu Jian's army has lost the battle! Fu Jian's army has lost the battle!"This threw the Former Qin soldiers into great confusion at once. The Jin army took advantage of the occasion and crossed the Feishui River. Fu Jian's soldiers fled desperately and Fu Jian himself got wounded by an arrow. At last, Fu Jian returned to Chang'an with only a little more than 100,000 soldiers.

  This was the famous Battle of Feishui in history, in which a small army defeated a big one. After the Battle of Feishui, the Former Qin Dynasty fell down and north China was again rent by independent regimes.

【來源:中國華文教育網】

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